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Introduction to Robotics


Technical Talk on Empowering Innovations in Robotics by Mr. Ajit Kumar, Founder & CEO, Stepupify Labs

What is a Robot ?


Robotics - A Multidisciplinary Domain


Robots - Application Examples

Sophia - The Humanoid Robot


A Robot Serving Food


Surveillance Robot for Parking Area


Robots dousing the uncontrollable fire - very difficult for fireman.


Robots for E-Commerce & Logistics


Ware House Robots


Power Substation Robot for Autonomous Inspection


Robots by Boston Dynamics–Humanoid & Legged


Robot Architecture



We live in a World of Sensors. You can find different types of Sensors in our homes, offices, cars etc. working to make our lives easier by turning on the lights by detecting our presence, adjusting the room temperature, detect smoke or fire, make us delicious coffee, open garage doors as soon as our car is near the door and many other tasks.

A sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics.


Sensors – for Position, Distance & Orientation


Sensors – Different types



The robot connects to a computer, which keeps the components of the robot working together. This computer is the controller. The controller functions as the "brain" of the robot.

The controller can also network to other systems, so that the robot may work together with other machines, processes, or robots.

Controllers/Computers for Robots

Arduino - 8bit microcontroller
STM32 - 32bit microcontroller
RaspberryPi - ARM Cortex-A: A Single Board Computer
Embedded PC


An actuator is a part of a device or machine that helps it to achieve physical movements by converting energy, often electrical, air, or hydraulic, into mechanical force. Simply put, it is the component in any machine that enables movement.

Two basic motions are rotary and linear.

Rotary actuators convert energy into rotational motion or torque.

Linear actuators convert energy into straight line motions, typically for positioning applications, and usually have a push and pull function.


Motors– The Rotary Actuators

Motors are used with required reduction gearing/gearbox to produce the output torque needed in application.

Motors with Motor Drivers

Motors – DC Motor Types


Linear Actuators

  • Lead Screw
  • Ball Screw
  • Timer-Pulley & Guide Rod

Functioning of Robots - An Overview


Wheeled & Tracked Robots


Unicycle Robot


Two Wheel–Self Balancing Mechanism


Differential Drive - Mechanism


Skid Steer - Mechanism


Skid Steer-Industrial/Heavy Vehicle Applications


Skid Steer Robots & Robotic Kits at Stepupify Labs

Duct Inspection Robot
Path Finder Robot

Skid Steer – Research Robot Platforms


Tracked Robot – Skid Steer Mechanism


Pragyan Rover by ISRO – Application of Skid Steer


Synchro Drive


Mecanum Wheel Drive


Omni Wheel Drive


Mars Rover - Rocker Bogie Suspension


Skid Steer & Rocker Bogie Suspension

Pragyan Rover Mechanical Model : Rocker Bogie Suspension – made by Students at Stepupify labs


Manipulator with Gripper
Kuka Manipulator - Playing Table Tennis
Delta Robot - Pick & Place Operation

Application of Manipulators


Forward Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics


Maths Involved :

  • Transformation Matrix

  • Jacobian

  • D-H Parameters

  • Numerical Methods


SCARA - 2 DOF for positioning in plane


Inverse Kinematics of SCARA


Forward Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics - Methodology


5 DOF Manipulator - Kinematics

  Inverse Kinematics Calculation Methodology:
  1. DH Parameters

  2. Numerical Methods


Inverse Kinematics – Process in Action On Robot


Inside Manipulator – Harmonic Drives (High Reduction to Weight Ratio)


Speed-ratios-as high as 320 to 1 in single- reduction Harmonic Drives-that are lighter, smaller, and more efficient than conventional high-ratio drives. Compound-drives-can produce-ratios-as high as 1,000,000 to 1.


Harmonic Drives – Backlash free required for repeatability & accuracy in positioning of end-effector . It provides massive torque amplification for lifting payloads with lesser weight.


Legged Robots


Biped Robots


Crab like Robots – Quadruped , Hexapod, Octopod, etc

Quadruped robot : A1

DIY Quadruped robot :






Human Like Walking Robot

HRP-4C Miim's Human-like Walking


Gait Generation for Legged Robots


Gait generation –formulation and selection of a sequence of coordinated leg and body motions that propel a legged robot along a desired path.

Modelled using - kinematic, collision, terrain, support, and stability constraints available for gait generation


Gait Generation Examples

Wild Cat


Atlas – Boston Dynamics


Robots /Robotics Kits for Education & Research

Visit here to watch the videos of Educational Robots on YouTube: Educational Robots at Stepupify Labs


External Resources for Learning

Learning Robotics & ROS

Stepupify Labs, StepUp Career Institute Building, Near NTPC PTS Gate, Kahalgaon, Bhagalpur-813203, India

Contact/WhatsApp: +91-7011865024


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