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Introduction to Robotics

What is a Robot ?


robotics-amalgam
 

Robotics - A Multidisciplinary Domain


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Robots - Application Examples


Sophia - The Humanoid Robot

sofia-robot
 
sofiaofferingfood
 
sofia2
 

A Robot Serving Food

eatingrobot
 

Surveillance Robot for Parking Area

eatingrobot
 

Robots dousing the uncontrollable fire - very difficult for fireman.

eatingrobot
 

Robots for E-Commerce & Logistics

eatingrobot
 

Ware House Robots

eatingrobot
 

Power Substation Robot for Autonomous Inspection

eatingrobot
 

Robots by Boston Dynamics–Humanoid & Legged


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Robot Architecture


 

Sensors


We live in a World of Sensors. You can find different types of Sensors in our homes, offices, cars etc. working to make our lives easier by turning on the lights by detecting our presence, adjusting the room temperature, detect smoke or fire, make us delicious coffee, open garage doors as soon as our car is near the door and many other tasks.

A sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics.

 

Sensors – for Position, Distance & Orientation


 

Sensors – Different types


 

Controller

The robot connects to a computer, which keeps the components of the robot working together. This computer is the controller. The controller functions as the "brain" of the robot.

The controller can also network to other systems, so that the robot may work together with other machines, processes, or robots.


Controllers/Computers for Robots


Arduino - 8bit microcontroller
 
STM32 - 32bit microcontroller
 
RaspberryPi - ARM Cortex-A: A Single Board Computer
 
Embedded PC

Actuators


An actuator is a part of a device or machine that helps it to achieve physical movements by converting energy, often electrical, air, or hydraulic, into mechanical force. Simply put, it is the component in any machine that enables movement.

Two basic motions are rotary and linear.

Rotary actuators convert energy into rotational motion or torque.

Linear actuators convert energy into straight line motions, typically for positioning applications, and usually have a push and pull function.

 

Motors– The Rotary Actuators


Motors are used with required reduction gearing/gearbox to produce the output torque needed in application.

Motors with Motor Drivers
 
 

Motors – DC Motor Types


 

Linear Actuators


  • Lead Screw
  • Ball Screw
  • Timer-Pulley & Guide Rod
 
 

Functioning of Robots - An Overview


 

Wheeled & Tracked Robots


 

Unicycle Robot


 

Two Wheel–Self Balancing Mechanism


 

Differential Drive - Mechanism


kinematic_configuration
 

Skid Steer - Mechanism


 

Skid Steer-Industrial/Heavy Vehicle Applications


 
 

Skid Steer Robots & Robotic Kits at Stepupify Labs


Duct Inspection Robot
 
Path Finder Robot
 

Skid Steer – Research Robot Platforms


 
 
 

Tracked Robot – Skid Steer Mechanism


 

Pragyan Rover by ISRO – Application of Skid Steer


 

Synchro Drive


 
 

Mecanum Wheel Drive


 
 

Omni Wheel Drive


 

Mars Rover - Rocker Bogie Suspension


 
 

Skid Steer & Rocker Bogie Suspension


 
 
Pragyan Rover Mechanical Model : Rocker Bogie Suspension – made by Students at Stepupify labs
 

Manipulators


 
Manipulator with Gripper
 
Kuka Manipulator - Playing Table Tennis
 
Delta Robot - Pick & Place Operation
 

Application of Manipulators


 

Forward Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics


 
 

Maths Involved :

  • Transformation Matrix

  • Jacobian

  • D-H Parameters

  • Numerical Methods

 
 

SCARA - 2 DOF for positioning in plane


 

Inverse Kinematics of SCARA


 

Forward Kinematics & Inverse Kinematics - Methodology


 
 

5 DOF Manipulator - Kinematics


 
  Inverse Kinematics Calculation Methodology:
  1. DH Parameters

  2. Numerical Methods

 

Inverse Kinematics – Process in Action On Robot


 
 

Inside Manipulator – Harmonic Drives (High Reduction to Weight Ratio)


 
 

Speed-ratios-as high as 320 to 1 in single- reduction Harmonic Drives-that are lighter, smaller, and more efficient than conventional high-ratio drives. Compound-drives-can produce-ratios-as high as 1,000,000 to 1.

 

Harmonic Drives – Backlash free required for repeatability & accuracy in positioning of end-effector . It provides massive torque amplification for lifting payloads with lesser weight.

 

Legged Robots


 

Biped Robots


 

Crab like Robots – Quadruped , Hexapod, Octopod, etc


 
 
Quadruped robot : A1
 
 

DIY Quadruped robot :

 

Hexapod


 

Octapod


 

Human Like Walking Robot


HRP-4C Miim's Human-like Walking

 

Gait Generation for Legged Robots


 

Gait generation –formulation and selection of a sequence of coordinated leg and body motions that propel a legged robot along a desired path.

Modelled using - kinematic, collision, terrain, support, and stability constraints available for gait generation

 

Gait Generation Examples


Wild Cat

 

Atlas – Boston Dynamics

 

Robots /Robotics Kits for Education & Research


Visit here to watch the videos of Educational Robots on YouTube: Educational Robots at Stepupify Labs

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